Lincoln's history can be traced back as far as 300BC and links to the city's past heritage can be seen even today.
The first known settlers in Lincoln, dating back to the first century BC, lived around the Brayford Waterfront area, giving the place its original name Lindon: “Lindo” translating as “The Pool” in the Celtic language (similar to Dublin's name Gaelic for “Black Pool”).
Timber houses and pottery have been found dating back to that time on the east of the pool. In fact the famous Witham Shield, belonging to a local tribe's chief, was found in the River Witham heading east from the Brayford area (near Washingborough). It dates back to 300BC and is now housed in the British Museum.
Through the years the Romans, Vikings, Saxons, Normans and other civilisations have made Lincoln their home. Read on to find out more.
It was the Romans who first created a major settlement in Lincoln, around AD 50, and built a wooden fortress at the top of the hill, later turned into a colonia (retiring home for soldiers. Lindon was latinised to become Lindum Colonia.
The Ermine Street, a key Roman highway connecting London with York, passed though the city of Lincoln (see right). Evidence of the Roman settlement, which was fronted in stone in the 3rd century, can be seen across the city today.
Lincoln issued coins from its own mint in Viking times and the local economy boomed with the settlement of the Danes. Lincolnshire was the heart of the Viking Danelaw and its Danish inheritance can be seen today in its placenames - such as town ending in -by (ie. Grimsby, Wragby, Spilsby), and streets ending in -gate (ie. Danesgate, Bailgate, Eastgate).
When the Domesday Book was commissioned by King William in 1086, Lincolnshire was the second most populated county in the kingdom, and Lincoln (recorded as 'Lincolia') was one of the four largest cities.
Lincoln Cathedral, built of Lincolnshire limestone, was consecrated by Remigius de Fécamp, the first Bishop of Lincoln, in 1092.
When King John placed his seal on Magna Carta at Runnymeade in 1215, a copy was brought back to Lincoln by then Bishop of Lincoln, Hugh of Wells, with the address 'LINCOLNIA' written on the back. Lincoln's Magna Carta is still owned by Lincoln Cathedral and remains as one of four surviving copies of the document and it can be seen in Lincoln today.
The city was of great importance at this time, being the capital of England's largest diocese at the time stretching from the Humber in the north to the Thames in the south.
Lincoln Cathedral became the tallest building in the world in 1300, passing the Great Pyramid, when the spire on the central tower was raised (see left). It held that title until 1549 when the spires collapsed during a storm.
Lincoln was a wealthy town supported by a healthy wool trade through the 17th to 19th centuries. The city's cloth became famous in legend through Robin Hood being said to have worn garments of Lincoln Green.
Lincoln boomed during the industrial revolution and began to excel in the engineering industry, in particular through production of air engines and tanks.
In 1916 the first ever tanks were designed and built in Lincoln, giving the city the nicknamed 'Tank Town'. These machines were paraded through the city before going to war and significantly shortened the First World War, preventing many more casualties.
Lincoln was also a centre for the aviation industry (see right) with 1 in 14 WWI aircraft being produced in the city. Later, the county became known as Bomber County with a large number of RAF bases running on the flat countryside.
Into the 21st century, Lincoln is home to one of the UK's fastest growing modern universities, is still a world leader in the engineering industry, with almost 2000 years of history past to explore.
Pencil drawings: David Vale © Society for Lincolnshire Archaeology and History
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